Posts Tagged ‘Marketing’

A Business Must Pry Loose Consumer Savings

August 4, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

It has been widely reported that businesses of all sizes have accumulated cash over the last year to reduce debt and have a cash flow cushion going forward.

Someone else is doing the same thing.

The consumer has decided that saving money is a good and needed strategy for themselves and their families.

The US government reported that consumers saved 6.4% of after tax income for the month of July.  This trend in increased savings has been happening now for a few months.  Compare this savings rate to 1%+ prior to the economic chaos that started in 2008.

Why is the consumer deciding to save more at this point in time?  Here are a few reasons as I see them:

  • It is no secret that consumers are trying to reduce any and all debt they have.
  • Uncertainty plays a major role in consumer psychology.  The consumer is telling themselves that caution is the best strategy and that means saving dollars until they can get a better “feel” on the future of the economy.
  • The consumer is becoming wiser.  Part of what got the consumer and the country into economic trouble was spending on unnecessary products and services as well as houses bigger than were needed.  You can add to that a few vacation homes.  Now the consumer is still spending, but it is on more necessities and less on “feel good” items with no lasting value. Some of the remaining dollars is going into savings.

In spite of this new pragmatic approach by the consumer, businesses still have to generate sales.  The consumer has not stopped buying. They are just buying less and being more cautious.  A company needs to capitalize on that mindset.  Here is how to do it:

  1. Know who your target customer is and channel your available marketing dollars at that customer.  As  a business, you do not have the luxury of using a shotgun approach.  That only wastes cash flow.
  2. Know which of your services or products is most desired at this time by your target customer.  Don’t make the mistake of emphasizing secondary products, styles, colors, sizes, or categories in your offering.  Lead with your strength.  Do research to find out what that is if necessary.
  3. The consumer right now appears to only be buying bargains.  So give them a bargain.  Find a way to promote your most wanted items to the target customer at a price point they cannot refuse. Then cross market and up sell to increase the average sale and bump up margin.
  4. Offer the best guarantee or warranty that you possibly can.  The consumer is not very trusting right now.  Let them know that once they finally decide to buy that they can have peace of mind that their purchase will not be a mistake.  Trust and credibility in the seller is currently an important part of the buyers decision-making strategy. 

The consumer has money to spend.  And they will spend it given a good reason to do so.

It is up to the owner or CEO to give the consumer a valid reason to dip into the increase in savings and spend it with your company.

Use Google TV Ads To Build Brand And Increase Cash Flow

July 16, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

As a small business owner or CEO you do not have the luxury of wasting the cash flow of your business while trying to build your company’s brand and increase sales.

One of the quickest ways to blow cash and profit is to invest too many dollars in the wrong marketing channels.

Most business owners have been turned off by TV because of the big ongoing expense and long lead time to produce and schedule a spot.  However, the biggest complaint I have always heard is the inability to truly measure the results of a specific TV spot.

Most small businesses that have included the Internet as part of a well executed  integrated marketing strategy  know about Google’s successful AdWords program.  What you may not realize is that for about the last 2 years Google has been incorporating the mechanics of the AdWords program into purchasing TV spots.

As a small business owner you can find programs on Cable TV and bid on specific spots on those shows.  By using keywords similar to those used in AdWords Campaigns, your company can target programs and times that work best for your marketing strategy.  Best of all, you can measure the results afterwards.

To find out more go to Google TV Ads here.

Successful marketing is all about testing concepts, measuring results, making adjustments and testing again.

Whether you want to build brand or develop a top-notch direct response program, I suggest your company test Google TV ads.

Leverage your knowledge and experience with Google AdWords to become more productive with your TV budget.

Slow Economic Recovery Makes Business Cash Flow A Priority

June 30, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

The economy is not bouncing back as quickly as some expected.  There is confusion and doubt about the path of the economic recovery.  Even the economists that projected a choppy recovery are seeing that the resumption of growth is slower than anticipated.

This means more than ever, it is important for every business of any size to maintain a strong cash flow position.

In my opinion, the facts supporting a continued slow recovery are obvious:

  • Consumer confidence remains mixed at best.  Two different reliable reporting groups  reported May consumer confidence moving in opposite directions.  For many reasons, I believe consumers do not feel good about things now and I don’t see that changing for a while.  The future of the economy is tied directly and indirectly to the feelings of the everyday consumer.  If they are not confident then the consumer will not spend and cash flow of businesses will be impacted.  This important indicator will have to be closely monitored going forward to determine what the real truth is.
  • Housing sales are not showing any upward momentum.  With the government tax credits going  away there are fewer homes being sold.  This decline reverberates throughout the economy.  There will have to be a further drop in prices to trigger an increase in demand.
  • Commercial real estate problems still exist.  Increased vacancies in retail and office space is a reflection of a soft economy.  If businesses do not expand or even reduce in size then they don’t need space.  The landlords holding this space still have mortgages to pay. This problem will still be a front burner issue in 2011.
  • There will be no more government stimulus prior to November 2010 elections. The prior stimulus methods temporarily helped boost the economy.  The political mindset now is to reduce debt.  Going forward,  the private sector has to carry the weight of the recovery by themselves. 
  • The Federal Reserve will not reduce interest rates further.  When it comes to lowering interest the Federal Reserve has done all that it can.  Don’t look for lower rates to further stimulate the economy.
  • The unemployment is still high and will be for the forseeable future.  Government census workers helped boost employment for awhile.  Additional workers will only be hired as business confidence suggests a reason to expect improved revenue over the longer term.  That confidence currently is not there.

So, what should a business be doing?

Here are 7 action steps your company should be doing right now:

  1. Have realistic revenue goals going into the second half of 2010.  Do not gear up for a sales increase that won’t be there.  Your original sales projections for the year may now be outdated.   All other expense areas take their direction from the sales plan so get it as accurate as you can.
  2. Know your business’s breakeven point.  Make sure you operate at or below it.  Failure to do this will consume precious cash flow.
  3. Maintain good relations with key suppliers.  Don’t create surprises for your partners and you will find most of them will be there to help if you need assistance like extending terms.  Do this by communicating how things are going.  It helps your suppliers plan for the future too.
  4. Do not lose existing customers while attempting to generate new business.  New customers cost more to add than keeping old customers. If you have a zero sum game with the number of customers in  your database this too will eat up cash flow. A tip to keep customers happy is to deliver some type of  added value (ie: free shipping, etc) that may not be expensive to do but is attractive to your customer.
  5. Now is not the time to start new projects.  Keep a cash reserve and add to it if possible.  New opportunities will still exist in the future.  Make sure you are there to capitalize on them.
  6. Keep marketing costs in line with revised sales projections.  Do not assume that by increasing the marketing budget that more sales will automatically follow.  Don’t stop marketing but invest dollars in marketing channels that are proven.
  7. Keep gross margin in line.  Do this by making sure you are priced to make a profit.  That does not prevent you from running a short-term promotion that might temporarily decrease gross margin percentage but increase gross margin dollars.

A positive:   Banks appear to be adding fewer reserves for bad loans than before.  This will increase earnings and should start freeing up money to lend to consumers and businesses. This will be one source of cash flow that well run businesses will need in order to grow going forward.

Make sure your business model and financials are in good shape to access this cash from your bank as it becomes available.

Cash flow is the lifeblood of any business, especially in uncertain times.  Make sure you are protecting it.

14 Reasons A Company Should Use Internet Marketing To Increase Sales And Business Cash Flow

June 22, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

I envy the manager of today that is  just graduating from business school.  They have a tool available to them that I wished that I had for most of my 30 years as a CEO.  That tool is the Internet.  I can only imagine how this productive tool for generating sales will evolve over time.

It is an exciting time to be the Director of Marketing of any organization.  If your mission is to build brand, generate leads, expand a relationship with your customer, or simply surpass a sales plan, then the Internet must be part of an integrated marketing communications strategy.

For you business owners still not sure whether the Internet is worth spending your company’s marketing dollars this way, then here are a few thoughts of mine on why the Internet needs to be a part of your future:

  1. Pay for Performance:  As a CEO nothing gets better than this.  Using pay-per-click advertising that is  correctly executed allows your company to only pay if a prospect clicks on your ad.  Compare that to a TV spot on the evening news.  You pay for that spot whether your prospect is watching or not.  It’s the same with the newspaper.  Regardless of the location of the ad, you will be writing a check to the newspaper gods even if your prospect is on vacation and did not read the paper that day.  By the way, I predict that all digital newspaper sites will eventually go to pay for performance advertising.
  2. 24 Hour Marketing:  With a website, blog or video on YouTube the Internet offers an around the clock opportunity to deliver your message.  The prospect can log on when they want and you know your message will be delivered.  Compare this to event marketing or a showroom with limited hours, or a radio spot that is only for 60 seconds.  You get more bang for your buck.
  3. Results Can Be Measured:  How many readers really saw the newspaper ad?  How many listeners really heard your radio spot?  How many visitors to a trade show really walked down the aisle of your exhibit?  With Google analytics (read more here about Google)  your company can track how many visitors came to your website, how  many seconds or minutes they stayed, what percent were repeat visitors and on and on.  With analytics for the Internet you will know what pages were read and what pages were not visited at all.  You can even determine what part of the page was viewed.  With good timely accurate information, the Marketing Manager can then make the Internet investment more productive than what is happening with your non-Internet marketing today.
  4. Used To Build Database:  By using such tools as white papers and giveaways, your company can build a database of interested prospects from your website  to then establish a relationship with over time.  This beats buying a list tied to some demographic sampling that maybe could care less who your company is.
  5. Email Marketing:  This is possibly the highest return on investment outside of word of mouth.  For pennies a business can send enewsletters to a pre-qualified database that you generated.  The enewsletters can be segmented based upon the information the prospect wanted so only relevant content needs to be delivered.  The Marketing Manager can judge the performance of this tool by measuring how many readers opened the email and read it.  Email analytics can also tell what day of the week and what hour of the day is best to send the enewsletter.  Probably the most important aspect of email marketing is allowing the company to build a relationship with the prospect or existing customer.  An effective email marketing campaign provides information and a solution to problems of the reader.  It is not just used to deliver a call to action for a promotion.  For more information on effective email marketing go to the website of Exacttarget right here.
  6. Can Reach a Younger Customer:  Instead of hoping a younger demographic comes to your website, you can go where they are.  This can be done by advertising on sites most frequently visited by a young prospect group.  For instance, your company might advertise to young males on the ESPN site or to young female entrepreneurs on a women’s business blog.
  7. You Can Target Market to Almost Anyone:  By utilizing keywords in your organic or pay-per-click marketing strategy your company can send your message to a specific segment of customers in almost any defined geographic market for a predetermined price.
  8. Education Based Marketing:  The consumer is getting smarter and now controls the buy-sell relationship.  Before engaging the seller, the consumer will first take time to educate themselves thoroughly about the product or service they are seeking.  This will be done primarily over the Internet.  Those companies that will take the time to help the consumer by answering their questions and providing good information will gain credibility in the  mind of the buyer.  When she finally decides to purchase, the company that took the time to provide the knowledge she desired will be first on her list to be shopped.  The buying funnel or buying decision cycle has been extended by the consumer spending more time gathering information prior to the buying step.  Make sure your company is the one educating her.
  9. Mobile Marketing:  I predict this will be the most dominant marketing channel in the future.  Consumers are already accessing coupons at the checkout counter on their smartphones.  Will you be ready?
  10. Speed of Message:  In the past if sales were horrible and I wanted to execute a quick promotion it necessitated producing and sending a direct mail piece or producing a TV or radio spot.  If we moved fast enough it might happen in 7-10 days.  Now, if the marketing team this morning wanted to communicate a promotion, it can be delivered via email to the customer database before the sun goes down.  Maybe they would follow-up with another promotion in a couple of days.  Not only is it much faster than before but it is also far less expensive.
  11. Use of Video:  If you want to personalize the message there is no better way than the owner of the business looking into the camera and speaking one on one to the prospect or customer.  Some consumers do not want to read copy.  The video can be used to create traffic to your website, educate the consumer, or be part of a strong call to action.  Video on the Internet tends to be very short in duration and much less expensive than producing a TV spot.  Therefore, video marketing needs to become a strategy in itself.
  12. Build Brand thru Social Media:  All forms of social media such as Twitter or Facebook can be used to build a dialogue with prospects and customers.  This can be the first step in building a relationship that will turn into a sale.  Forums and consumer sites on the Internet can work to the benefit of a business or against it.  Social media is the new word of mouth marketing.  Make sure your company knows how to use it to its best advantage.
  13. Test Headlines and Copy:  By combining analytics with pay-per-click, a company can test various headlines, copy and promotions prior to running a newspaper ad or producing a direct mail piece.  For a nominal investment you will know ahead of time which headlines and promotions the consumer will best respond to.
  14. It’s the Future:  Internet marketing is less than 20 years old.  Yet the estimated dollars to be spent annually in online marketing is expected to surpass $30 billion in the next few years.  At the same time advertising on radio, TV and newspaper is struggling to show any increase.  The message is clear.  Online marketing will continue to outpace other methods of advertising.  A major reason is simply the ability to better measure results from the dollars invested through the Internet.

Will the Internet be a part of your company’s future?

It had better be because it definitely will be a part of your customer’s future.

Keep Overhead Expense As A Percent Of Total Sales Low To Save Business Cash Flow

June 21, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group 

Some of the best well run companies in America keep their overhead expense very low.  It becomes a competitive advantage when competing against other businesses.  Your company needs to have the same strategy.

Any available cash from having overhead low can be channelled into marketing and sales to drive marketshare. You never know when the local television or radio station might come to you with a last-minute buy that you do not want to turn down.  If your cash is tied up in fixed overhead costs then that special offer becomes a lost opportunity.  For example, years ago due to a last-minute cancellation our company was offered a Super Bowl Ad by a local network affiliate. Due to having available cash on hand we were able to take advantage of this once in a lifetime opportunity.  Customers talked about seeing that television spot for years afterward. 

Regardless of your industry, one way to monitor growth of overhead is to watch the trend of your actual overhead dollars being spent over time.  You would like overhead dollars to stay the same or decline as sales go up.  Another way to measure the change in overhead is to look at the combined overhead expense as a percent of sales.  As sales increase the percent will decline.  That will  be a good thing. 

What is the takeaway here?  

As owner, when you are managing areas like operations, inventory, and customer service, do not let an increase in overhead prevent you from taking advantage of marketing opportunities that may come up.  In addition, if sales shows an unexpected decline you will already have the overhead expense under control.

Look closely each month at every line item of overhead and constantly challenge the amounts. Overhead expenses can be reduced.

Always have overhead dollars and percent to sales low and trending downward and you will like the strategic flexibility it will give you.

Save Time And Cash With A Few Good Performance Measurements

May 27, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

Next to more sales and more cash most owners and managers would list a desire for more time in their day.

How does an owner keep track of what is happening in the company when he or she is consumed with meetings, addressing emergencies and fulfilling commitments outside the office?

It is a challenge to say the least!

I have found there are a few measures of performance I can access daily and weekly that quickly tells me if things are going as planned.  These measures almost act as early warning signals that a small problem may be about to become an all encompassing issue the whole management team will have to address.  I refer to them as “How are we doing” metrics.

Every manager and every company is different.  I encourage you to identify a few key metrics that will work for you and your business.  My suggestion, however, is to not overdue the number of measurements you are tracking.  If you are having to dedicate staff to just preparing a few indicators for your review then you are probably looking at too many.

The measurements should be easily accessible and help you improve the company.  If they cannot aid in increasing sales or cash flow then maybe you can review that data later.

Over the last 20 years there has been a mini industry created in performance measurements.  Many PhDs and consultants have made a career in marketing  “Balanced Scorecards”, “Strategy Maps” and other indicators of productivity.  I find most of them interesting but often too costly to prepare and sometimes ignored by management teams.  If you use these and they work for your company then by all means you should continue.

The measurements I use appear to be obvious ones but that is OK.  They have worked for me.  Maybe they might work for you:

Cash Report:  This is a daily report that  shows the bank balance, deposits made, payments transmitted and ending balance or float.  I never want to be surprised on cash, whether it’s coming or going.

Daily Sales:  I know my sales plan and this tells me if we are tracking to hit it.  If it is a company that issues leads daily I will want to know conversion rate.  If there are multiple locations, product lines, or divisions I will want to know if all of them are tracking to hit their monthly sales goals.

Accounts Receivable Aging:  I want to see this weekly and determine who owes us money and if the  amount is increasing.  In my opinion, we deserve to be paid for the quality work we did and I am very aggressive in wanting to be paid on time.  I will also do a mental calculation of days of sales outstanding.

Accounts Payable Report:  I want to see this weekly and compare the balance owed against cash on hand, jobs moving through the system and new sales being generated.  In the event I get a call from the CEO of my top supplier, I always want to know what we owe and if we are current.

Marketing Percent to Net Sales:  This is normally a monthly report that tells me if we are overspending to create sales.  Many companies have gone out of business from spending too much in this area.  If sales are trailing the plan dramatically during the month I may cut back some area of marketing before the month is over.

These are the key performance measurements I stay on top of.  There are many other reports that I will review from time to time such as Revenue per Employee, Revenue per Visitor on a website and, of course, monthly financials.  But these 5 performance measures are important to me.  You may have different ones that work for your business.

Regardless what metric you use there are 3 important elements to keep in mind with each report:

  1. Establish a beginning baseline from which to measure results.  All measurements need a starting point.
  2. Always look at  trend over time of any performance measurement.  Are the current results just a blip or is there a pattern occurring?  Some management teams like to illustrate trends with a graph for impact.
  3. Take action.  Unless the results were a blip then, at a minimum, you need to ask more questions or look at additional data.  Is there a problem with pricing, a promotion, or a key account?  Are there quality issues preventing collection of money due?  Information is only good if you do something with it.

A few good performance measurements can save time, increase your personal productivity and improve cash flow and profit.

Make sure they exist in your company and are used.

Increase Sales And Cash Flow With Crossmarketing Alliances

May 26, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

As a business you must increase sales while not overspending on marketing.  If this is done well, your company will realize more profit and an improved net worth.  The increase in cash flow will allow you to do such things as pay down debt, expand into other markets and contribute back to the community.

The challenge lies in the ability to effectively market your product or service by spending your available dollars wisely.  The marketing options are many.  Depending upon the target customer you may invest in TV, radio, newspaper, special events, trade shows, sponsorships, direct mail, or the many forms of internet marketing.  There are some companies that still telemarket, use billboards or even canvas door to door.  The form of marketing that worked last year may not work this year.  As a CEO  I knew the head of marketing had one of the toughest jobs in the company.

In spite of all the marketing channels available to a company I always thought there was one method that was extremely effective and underutilized.  Executed correctly the marketing cost could be extremely low.  I am talking about using crossmarketing alliances.  What is that?  It is where separate companies with different products market to the same customer together.  In the eyes of the customer there is synergy in the offering coming from the combined approach of the companies.  The customer perceives this combination as added value.

Confused?  Here is a simple example to illustrate a cross marketing alliance that works well.  Think of the bride and groom.  Now think of all the things that have to be coordinated for the wedding.  Imagine if the couple can receive a suggestion from the florist they like to use a specific bakery for the cake and then both companies suggest a reputable photographer.  This can continue with the tux or wedding dress store, limo service and even the location for the reception.  There might be discounts used for the referrals.  This approach works for both the business and the customer. The customer gets what they want and the money the business saves on marketing can increase cash flow and add to profit.  More sales, more cash, and more profit is always a good payoff for a winning marketing strategy.

How can separate companies market themselves to the same customer.  Here are a few ways:

  • Share the cost of direct mail or brochures where each business’s product or service is featured.
  • Hold events or shows together and invite the same targeted customer.  An example is a Bridal Fair.
  • Pass out coupon books with each company featured.
  • Display an ad , sign or presentation in each others business location.
  • Offer a bundled package of services or products for one price.
  • Write testimonials for each other.
  • Mention the other company on Twitter, Facebook, or in a blog post.

Those are just a few ideas.  The key is to think outside the box.  Not sure this approach is right for you?  Here are some other examples of companies that could benefit from crossmarketing services:

  1. Web designer, SEO agency, email service, copywriter, video production company.
  2. Painter, plumber, electrician, handyman, home cleaning service.
  3. Attorney, CPA, insurance agent.
  4. Veterinary, kennel, pet grooming, pet store
  5. Landscaper, lawncare company, deck company, tree service, fence company
  6. Auto repair, wrecker service, car rental, car wash.
  7. Dry cleaner, seamstress, shoe repair, fire & water restoration.   

I suggest you have your mangers brainstorm this topic at the end of your next management meeting. You may be surprised at some of the workable combinations they will discover.

Remember, the next time you want to save some marketing dollars and increase cash flow try using a crossmarketing alliance.

Increase Sales And Cash Flow By Marketing To The Echo Boomer Generation

May 13, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

The echo boomers are coming!  Some say they are already here.

For the last 40 years the baby boomer generation has driven marketing decisions in America.  Those businesses that were able to tap into the boomer’s wants and needs have been successful.

Now those boomers have kids and the total size of that market called echo boomers rivals the size of the baby boomer generation.

Ignore them at your own peril!

Every business should be asking two questions:

  • How will the echo boomer decide what they want to buy?
  • How can our company persuade them to buy our product or service? 

Here are a few observations and conclusions I have about this generation and how to market to them:

  1. They obviously are comfortable with technology and anything digital. We see it with their use of social media, text messaging, PDAs, and past times like online games. We need to keep this in mind when deciding how and where to spend our marketing budget. 
  2. They really do not want to be fooled or misled.  The negative reaction to a bad experience will be immediate in forums and social media sites.  The echo boomer has moved on from “the letter to the editor.”
  3. The echo boomer tends to be well-educated and, I believe, will want to continue to learn throughout their lifetime. Utilizing an education based marketing strategy as it relates to your product or service  will gain your company credibility and earn you the right to ask for the sale at a future time.  A call to action by itself will not be enough.
  4. Later marriages among this group means more independent shopping by both the male and female.  For instance, will there be more single female homeowners?  Absolutely!  And this female will not be going to Dad or a boyfriend for a final decision.  She will have the money and the authority to decide on her own.
  5. Traditional or “old media” such as newspapers, direct mail and TV is giving way to making buying decisions through the Internet.  A smart marketer will find a method to “get in the way” of an echo boomer searching online.  How?  By using relevant timely  information that can be accessed when the echo boomer chooses to access it.  In the years ahead, I believe, some evolving form of social media combined with mobile technology will be the method of choice when this group decides to buy.
  6. Echo boomers like to help other people.  We see it with their participation in organizations like TeachForAmerica, microlending, and various social entrepreneurship groups.  As businesses we need to find a way to tap into these opportunities alongside the echo boomer.  Its good for business and good for society.
  7. Traditional brands are not as important to this group.  The echo boomer wants to know what the brand has done for them recently.  Is it evolving to fit their wants and needs?   Does it have momentum?  Do not bore them with your brand.  Think of Apple as an example.  How does your business compare?
  8. You need echo boomers on your sales and marketing teams.  They understand this demographic better than anyone and how it is changing.  Just reading studies or listening to a seminar speaker is not enough.  You should even consider engaging an ad agency owned and dominated by echo boomers.  

More than ever the consumer is in charge.

The next wave of decision makers will be the echo boomers.  It is critical that your company learns their behavioral characteristics and how they differ from today’s customer.

Is your marketing strategy ready for them?

Your marketshare, profit, and cash flow will be dependent upon it.

Knowing Your Target Customer Will Save Cash

April 9, 2010

by Doug Smith, President, The Woodhaven Group

It drives me crazy the amount of cash that is wasted from poor marketing strategy or just dumb advertising.  John Wanamaker, the department store owner in Philadelphia, once said that “50% of my advertising is wasted. I just don’t know which 50%.”  I can help here.

Lets go back to marketing 101 to learn how to save cash.  It’s really very simple. Know who your customer is and know who is not your customer.

Once you have figured that out then determine what their urgent needs and wants are.  Then make sure your product or service delivers value at a reasonable price to fulfill that want or need.  Also, make sure that value delivered surpasses anything a competitor to that target group is offering.  After that,  stand behind the sale and develop your target customer into a raging advocate for your company.  How do you do that?  By showing you care about their opinion by listening to what they have to say and quickly solving any problems that may come up.  

Channel all of your marketing efforts into owning that target niche.  Focus your media advertising, public relations dollars, event advertising and Internet investment towards your target market.  Google can help you on that last part. You will see a higher return on  investment from your cash spent.

Put away your shotgun and get out the rifle. Or, another way of putting it…. don’t sell bikinis to Eskimos and don’t market down parkas at the equator.  Got it?  Good!!